Minggu, 27 Januari 2013

Drugs And High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

Drugs and high blood pressure. High blood pressure is usually treated with lifestyle changes and medications. Changes in lifestyle have success varies from one person to another , so the addition of a drug is sometimes necessary to lower blood pressure to an acceptable level.

If blood pressure remains high in spite of everything, can be to increase the dose of the drug or to add another, until the target value of the measurement of blood pressure is achieved.

Doctors often prescribe drugs because they effectively lower high blood pressure and reduce the risk of possible complications due to hypertension. However, the drugs are only effective if they are taken in accordance with the doctor's recommendations. In some cases, lifestyle changes and medications may be necessary to treat other conditions, such as diabetes or high cholesterol, and reduce the risk of heart attack or stroke.

Medications to take long-term

Take medication long-term, this means a commitment to live longer and healthier. Some people find it painful to have to take medication for a long time, but research shows that a large number of antihypertensive (medications that lower blood pressure too high) is an effective treatment in the long term for individuals who make hypertension. Reducing blood pressure, these drugs help reduce the risk of death and disability resulting complications associated with hypertension.

Types of drugs

There are many hypotensive. This family includes several classes of drugs, which are distinguished by their mode of action.

The main classes of antihypertensive drugs available on prescription:

  • diuretics ;
  • inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) ;
  • beta-blockers ;
  • antagonistes les du calcium ;
  • receptor antagonists of angiotensin II ;
  • les alphabloquants ;
  • the direct renin inhibitors.

To find out what kind of medication your doctor has prescribed, go to the page related drugs and you will find the list of drugs in each class.

Diuretics: These drugs act on the kidneys to eliminate forcing more salt. Thus, the body eliminates in turn a greater amount of water (as urine) and the volume of water in the blood is reduced, which lowers blood pressure. To better understand this, imagine that a blood vessel is a balloon filled with water. If one removes some water from the balloon, then the pressure in the boiler falls.

Diuretics are often the first medications. Some medicines contain a mixture of two diuretics and are designed to increase adherence, further reduce blood pressure and reduce some side effects. Diuretics are sometimes combined with other drugs against high blood pressure, such as ACE inhibitors, beta-blockers and antagonists of angiotensin II (see below). The side effects of diuretics may be dizziness, increased blood sugar and lower blood potassium levels.

You may have heard that pharmacists recommend that people taking diuretics to eat bananas or drink orange juice to keep the potassium in their bodies. This is valuable advice for some people, but they do not apply to all diuretics. Check with your health care provider before changing your diet.

ACE inhibitors: these drugs reduce the activity of a substance responsible for the narrowing of blood vessels. The vessels to relax and follows therefore lower blood pressure. The heart must make less effort to circulate blood through the body.

ACE inhibitors are often used by people who have diabetes or certain diseases of the kidneys and exert protective effects on the kidneys. The main side effects of ACE inhibitors include dizziness, edema, headache, and dry cough. Dry cough is a reason that many people decide to stop taking ACE inhibitors. The cough is usually of no consequence and resolves after discontinuation of therapy. Talk to your doctor before stopping treatment whatsoever.

Beta-blockers: These drugs lower blood pressure by decreasing the frequency and strength of the heart beat. This means that the heart pumps blood less forcefully in the blood vessels, thus lowering blood pressure. It is recommended that people who have diabetes and are taking beta-blockers monitor their blood sugar more frequently, because beta-blockers may mask the symptoms of low blood sugar.

Among the possible side effects of these drugs include dizziness when you start standing, exercise intolerance, sexual dysfunction and drowsiness. Must be cautious when taking beta blockers at the same time as other drugs that can directly influence the frequency of the heart beat.

Antagonists of angiotensin II: these drugs block the action of a substance that causes blood vessels to contract. Although they are sometimes used as first treatment, they also give some people who have had intolerable side effects with other drugs. Side effects of antagonists of angiotensin II, including dizziness, rashes, headaches and edema.

Calcium antagonists: these drugs lower blood pressure by causing blood vessels to dilate. Certain calcium antagonists also reduce the frequency and strength of the heart beat, which requires caution when combined with beta-blockers.

As grapefruit and grapefruit juice may interact with some of these drugs should be avoided to consume during treatment with these drugs. Some side effects may be associated with calcium antagonists include constipation, headache, redness and swelling (especially ankles and feet).

Alpha blockers: drugs of this class cause dilation of blood vessels. Alpha blockers are not recommended as initial treatment of hypertension and are usually used in addition to other treatment, when it is not sufficient enough to lower blood pressure.

The alpha tend to have more side effects than other classes of drugs are the most common feeling lightheaded when standing starts, dizziness, drowsiness, headache and edema. Sometimes added a diuretic to prevent the body does not retain too much fluid. This type of medication can also be used to treat a condition called male benign prostatic hyperplasia.

The direct renin inhibitors: it is a new class of drugs that act by reducing the concentration of a substance that causes contraction of blood vessels. Currently, only one drug in this class is sold in Canada, aliskiren. It can be used alone or in conjunction with a diuretic, an ACE inhibitor or a calcium antagonist, persons who make a mild to moderate hypertension. Its main side effects are diarrhea, dizziness, edema, rash and cough.

Drug combinations

Some people need to take two or more medications to lower their blood pressure. However, there are treatments that combine two drugs combination in one tablet. Once the right dose of each drug is known, it can be administered in a single tablet. Such combination therapy has the following advantages:

  • convenience: it no longer has to remember to take two separate tablets ;
  • possible reduction of cost: just run a single order.

Since there are a large number of drugs against hypertension, the possibility of combining in pairs the same tablet are very numerous. All combinations are not available. If you are taking more than one medicine against high blood pressure, talk with your doctor to see if they could be offered in a single tablet.

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